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summary energy [kWh/d/p] energy [%] energy [TWh] renewables and biofuels


This page shows the energy use for Germany, using 2.12 percent of world energy production for 83 million inhabitants in 2019. Energy is typically specified in Million metric Ton of Oil Equivalent [Mtoe] for large quantities. This work prefers to use TeraWatt-hours (TWh) instead, which is obtained by multiplying the a value expressed in Mtoe with a factor 11.63 . To allow an easy comparison between countries, we normalize the TWh value to kiloWatt-hour per day (kWh/d/p) per person. Day to day energy production or consumption can fluctuate from a kWh/d/p value, for example space heating consumes more energy in the winter season.

These values are summarized in table 0.1 . The first two columns show the gross inland energy consumption and gross renewable and biofuel consumptions. We do so since some renewable and biofuel sources are converted to electricity for final energy consumption. The third column shows the total final energy consumption of Germany. The fourth column shows the electricity consumption, which is a part of the final energy consumption.

The main data source for this page are the Eurostat energy balances, edition January 2021. A
population plot of Germany and a list of data source references are available below.

Table 0.1 Energy summary for Germany in 2019.
Gross inland consumptionGross renewable and biofuel consumptionFinal energy consumptionElectricity consumption
306 Mtoe45.5 Mtoe201 Mtoe43.0 Mtoe
3550 TWh529 TWh2330 TWh500 TWh
117 kWh/d/p17.4 kWh/d/p77.0 kWh/d/p16.5 kWh/d/p
100 % (gross)14.9 % (gross)65.6 % (gross)14.1 % (gross)
152 % (final)22.7 % (final)100 % (final)21.4 % (final)
Gross inland energy consumption in 2019 for Germany
Figure 0.1 Germany yearly gross inland energy consumption, split according to fuel type.
monthly average percentage of solar PV, heating and cooling degree days for Berlin in Germany
Figure 0.2 Monthly average percentage of solar photovoltaics, heating and cooling degree days for Berlin in Germany.
Energy balance summary, using kWh/d/p to express energy consumption
normalized final energy in kWh/d/p for Germany
Figure 1.1 Yearly final energy consumption in kWh/d/p for Germany.

Table 1.1 Final energy consumption in kWh/d/p for Germany in 2019.
Germany 2019 [kWh/d/p]TotalElectricityOil and petroleum productsNatural gasSolid fossil fuelsRenewables and biofuelsNuclear heatNon-renewable wasteHeat
Gross inland consumption117
-3.26%
-1.08
-33.2%
42.2
+1.12%
29.0
+2.53%
20.6
-23.1%
17.4
+3.77%
7.42
-1.49%
1.63
+0.45%
0.0
Final energy consumption77.0
-0.44%
16.5
-2.83%
27.6
+2.41%
20.1
-1.83%
1.31
-9.21%
6.38
+0.77%
0.0
0.49
+2.05%
3.69
+0.34%
  + Industry sector  21.4
  -2.68%
  7.37
  -3.34%
  1.28
  -0.9%
  7.47
  -0.93%
  1.18
  -5.53%
  1.05
  -0.53%
  0.0
  
  0.49
  +2.05%
  1.64
  -6.65%
  + Transport sector  21.6
  +1.08%
  0.38
  -4.25%
  19.9
  +0.98%
  0.3
  +27.4%
  0.0
  
  1.03
  -0.91%
  0.0
  
  0.0
  
  0.0
  
  + Other sectors  34.0
  =0.0%
  8.73
  -2.33%
  6.45
  +7.85%
  12.3
  -2.91%
  0.13
  -32.5%
  4.3
  +1.5%
  0.0
  
  0.0
  
  2.05
  +6.75%
    ++ Services    10.4
    -6.75%
    4.37
    -3.38%
    1.06
    -11.1%
    3.63
    -11.9%
    0.00079
    -90.1%
    0.82
    +1.64%
    0.0
    
    0.0
    
    0.53
    +2.78%
    ++ Households    22.2
    +3.1%
    4.18
    -1.57%
    4.56
    +15.2%
    8.59
    +0.24%
    0.13
    -30.1%
    3.18
    +1.67%
    0.0
    
    0.0
    
    1.52
    +8.2%
    ++ Agri/forest    1.36
    +8.77%
    0.17
    +4.43%
    0.8
    +0.71%
    0.099
    
    0.0
    
    0.29
    -0.65%
    0.0
    
    0.0
    
    0.0
    
    ++ Fishing    0.012
    +42.3%
    0.0033
    
    0.0091
    +4.25%
    0.0
    
    0.0
    
    0.0
    
    0.0
    
    0.0
    
    0.0
    
Energy balance summary, using percent to express energy consumption.
final energy in percent for Germany
Figure 1.2 Yearly final energy consumption in percent for Germany.

Table 1.2 Final energy consumption in percent for Germany in 2019.
Germany 2019 [percent]TotalElectricityOil and petroleum productsNatural gasSolid fossil fuelsRenewables and biofuelsNuclear heatNon-renewable wasteHeat
Gross inland consumption152%
-4.45%
-1.4%
+0.69%
54.8%
+0.84%
37.7%
+1.09%
26.8%
-7.9%
22.7%
+0.92%
9.64%
-0.1%
2.12%
=0.0%
0.0%
=0.0%
Final energy consumption100%
=0.0%
21.4%
-0.53%
35.9%
+1.0%
26.1%
-0.37%
1.71%
-0.16%
8.28%
=0.0%
0.0%
=0.0%
0.63%
=0.0%
4.8%
=0.0%
  + Industry sector  27.8%
  -0.64%
  9.58%
  -0.29%
  1.66%
  =0.0%
  9.71%
  =0.0%
  1.53%
  =0.0%
  1.37%
  =0.0%
  0.0%
  =0.0%
  0.63%
  =0.0%
  2.13%
  -0.14%
  + Transport sector  28.1%
  +0.42%
  0.5%
  =0.0%
  25.9%
  +0.36%
  0.39%
  =0.0%
  0.0%
  =0.0%
  1.34%
  =0.0%
  0.0%
  =0.0%
  0.0%
  =0.0%
  0.0%
  =0.0%
  + Other sectors  44.1%
  +0.22%
  11.3%
  -0.22%
  8.38%
  +0.64%
  16.0%
  -0.41%
  0.17%
  =0.0%
  5.58%
  +0.11%
  0.0%
  =0.0%
  0.0%
  =0.0%
  2.67%
  +0.18%
    ++ Services    13.5%
    -0.92%
    5.68%
    -0.17%
    1.38%
    -0.17%
    4.72%
    -0.61%
    0.001%
    =0.0%
    1.07%
    =0.0%
    0.0%
    =0.0%
    0.0%
    =0.0%
    0.69%
    =0.0%
    ++ Households    28.8%
    +0.99%
    5.42%
    =0.0%
    5.92%
    +0.8%
    11.2%
    =0.0%
    0.17%
    =0.0%
    4.13%
    =0.0%
    0.0%
    =0.0%
    0.0%
    =0.0%
    1.98%
    +0.16%
    ++ Agri/forest    1.77%
    +0.15%
    0.23%
    =0.0%
    1.04%
    =0.0%
    0.13%
    +0.13%
    0.0%
    =0.0%
    0.38%
    =0.0%
    0.0%
    =0.0%
    0.0%
    =0.0%
    0.0%
    =0.0%
    ++ Fishing    0.016%
    =0.0%
    0.0043%
    =0.0%
    0.012%
    =0.0%
    0.0%
    =0.0%
    0.0%
    =0.0%
    0.0%
    =0.0%
    0.0%
    =0.0%
    0.0%
    =0.0%
    0.0%
    =0.0%
Energy balance summary, using TWh to express energy consumption
final energy in TWh for Germany
Figure 1.3 Yearly final energy consumption in TWh for Germany.

Table 1.3 Final energy consumption in TWh for Germany in 2019.
Germany 2019 [TWh]TotalElectricityOil and petroleum productsNatural gasSolid fossil fuelsRenewables and biofuelsNuclear heatNon-renewable wasteHeat
Gross inland consumption3550
-3.0%
-32.7
-33.0%
1280
+1.39%
879
+2.81%
625
-22.9%
529
+4.05%
225
-1.22%
49.4
+0.72%
0.0
Final energy consumption2330
-0.16%
500
-2.56%
838
+2.69%
609
-1.56%
39.8
-8.96%
193
+1.04%
0.0
14.8
+2.33%
112
+0.62%
  + Industry sector  648
  -2.41%
  223
  -3.07%
  38.7
  -0.63%
  227
  -0.66%
  35.8
  -5.27%
  31.9
  -0.26%
  0.0
  
  14.8
  +2.33%
  49.8
  -6.4%
  + Transport sector  655
  +1.36%
  11.6
  -3.99%
  603
  +1.25%
  9.11
  +27.8%
  0.0
  
  31.2
  -0.64%
  0.0
  
  0.0
  
  0.0
  
  + Other sectors  1030
  +0.34%
  264
  -2.07%
  195
  +8.15%
  373
  -2.64%
  4.04
  -32.3%
  130
  +1.78%
  0.0
  
  0.0
  
  62.2
  +7.04%
    ++ Services    316
    -6.49%
    133
    -3.11%
    32.2
    -10.9%
    110
    -11.6%
    0.024
    -90.1%
    24.9
    +1.92%
    0.0
    
    0.0
    
    16.0
    +3.06%
    ++ Households    671
    +3.39%
    127
    -1.3%
    138
    +15.5%
    260
    +0.52%
    4.02
    -29.9%
    96.5
    +1.95%
    0.0
    
    0.0
    
    46.1
    +8.5%
    ++ Agri/forest    41.3
    +9.07%
    5.26
    +4.72%
    24.2
    +0.98%
    3.0
    
    0.0
    
    8.83
    -0.38%
    0.0
    
    0.0
    
    0.0
    
    ++ Fishing    0.37
    +42.6%
    0.1
    
    0.27
    +4.53%
    0.0
    
    0.0
    
    0.0
    
    0.0
    
    0.0
    
    0.0
    
Renewables and biofuel gross inland energy consumption
gross inland consumption of renewables and biofuels for Germany
Figure 1.4 Yearly gross inland consumption of renewables and biofuels for Germany.

Table 1.4 Gross inland consumtion of renewables and biofuels for Germany in 2019.
Germany 2019 renewables and biofuels[percent (gross)][percent (final)][kWh/d/p][percent][TWh]
Gross inland consumption100% (gross)152% (final)117672%3550
Renewables and biofuels - gross inland consumption14.9% (gross)22.7% (final)17.4100%529
  Hydro (3.95% of electricity)  0.56% (gross)  0.85% (final)  0.65  3.73%  19.7
  Tide, wave, ocean (0.0% of electricity)  0.0% (gross)  0.0% (final)  0.0  0.0%  0.0
  Wind (25.2% of electricity)  3.54% (gross)  5.4% (final)  4.15  23.8%  126
  Solar photovoltaic (9.29% of electricity)  1.31% (gross)  1.99% (final)  1.53  8.77%  46.4
  Solar thermal  0.24% (gross)  0.36% (final)  0.28  1.6%  8.48
  Geothermal  0.11% (gross)  0.17% (final)  0.13  0.73%  3.88
  Primary solid biofuels  4.23% (gross)  6.44% (final)  4.96  28.4%  150
  Charcoal  0.048% (gross)  0.073% (final)  0.056  0.32%  1.71
  Biogases  2.47% (gross)  3.76% (final)  2.9  16.6%  87.8
  Renewable municipal waste  1.01% (gross)  1.54% (final)  1.19  6.8%  35.9
  Pure biogasoline  0.24% (gross)  0.37% (final)  0.28  1.61%  8.54
  Blended biogasoline  -0.0031% (gross)  -0.0047% (final)  -0.0036  -0.021%  -0.11
  Pure biodiesels  0.71% (gross)  1.08% (final)  0.83  4.75%  25.1
  Blended biodiesels  -0.038% (gross)  -0.058% (final)  -0.045  -0.26%  -1.35
  Pure bio jet kerosene  0.0% (gross)  0.0% (final)  0.0  0.0%  0.0
  Blended bio jet kerosene  0.0% (gross)  0.0% (final)  0.0  0.0%  0.0
  Other liquid biofuels  0.049% (gross)  0.075% (final)  0.057  0.33%  1.74
  Ambient heat (heat pumps)  0.41% (gross)  0.63% (final)  0.48  2.77%  14.7
Population trend
Population trend of Germany
Figure 2.1 Population trend for Germany.

Acknowledgement: We would like to express our gratitude to Eurostat, part of the European Commission, for allowing free re-use of energy balances and related data. Website: ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/energy.

Disclaimer: This work provides a summary of the original data, converting ktoe (kilo ton oil equivalent) values to other energy units such as relative percentages, TWh (TeraWatt-hours) and normalized kWh/d/p (kiloWatt-hours per day per person) values. Values are rounded to 3 significant digits. Eurostat is not responsible for data conversion or rounding errors in doing so.

References:

[1]
Eurostat yearly energy balances. This work uses edition 2021 (up to year 2019). The energy data is converted to TWh (terra Watt-hour) and derived units.
[2]
Energy balance guide - new methodology. Explain the use(fulness) of energy balances, as well as how they are constructed.
[3]
EU energy in figures, Statistical pocketbook 2020, ISBN 978-92-76-19443-9. Visualizes energy statistics up to 2018. The glossary in appendix 7 explains energy terminology.
[4]
The number of persons having their usual residence in a country on 1 January of a given year.
[5]
PVGIS 5 post processed data plots for Berlin -- Additionally, Renewables.ninja post processed data plots for Germany can be found at energy.at-site.be/ninja/EU/Germany .

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